As part of our commitment to knowledge dissemination and outreach on topics of GI health and disease, members such as Dr. Elena Verdu and her postdoc Heather Galipeau contribute regularly to Gut Microbiota for Health. GMFH is a website created by the European Society for Neurogastroenterology & Motility (ESNM) with the mission to share knowledge, create teaching materials and organize workshops on topics surrounding the gut microbiota and nutrition. As leader of the nutrition section of the site, Dr. Verdu organizes workshops for nutritionists and dieticians and is often asked to contribute to topic specific videos that appear on the site. One recent video on the topic of food sensitivities reached a wide audience and was the most viewed of all the videos from the GMFH Summit 2017 workshop. This is a great example of the important work that clinical and basic scientists in our Institute do to support good science communication with the public and health practitioners.
Congratulations to Jun Lu who has provided 20 years of service to the University and to the GI Research Group. Thank you from all of us.
A rich research environment here in the Farncombe Institute is fostering exciting research opportunities for undergraduate students. Here we highlight and congratulate a number of students who will join research labs for the summer and beyond.
Christian Bellissimo has just completed his undergrad thesis in Dr. Deb Slaboda‘s lab. He has been awarded an Ontario Graduate Scholarship to start a PhD in the fall working on the impact of maternal obesity on the host and microbe relationships during pregnancy.
Christine Chow is a 4th year student in theBiomedical Discovery and Commercialization and has won a Cystic Fibrosis Canada Summer Studentship in the lab of Dr. Michael Surette. Her project is the characterization of secretion systems in the Streptococcus milleri group.
Carolina Duque will work in the lab of Dr. Elena Verdu. She has been awarded a 2017 CCC-CAG Summer Student Scholarship Award to work on isolation of bacterial strains from the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis and determination of bacterial proteolytic activity.
Richa John is a fourth year student in the Bachelor of Health Science Program. She has been awarded a BHSc (Honours) Program Summer 2017 Research Scholarship also in the Surette lab to study bacterial interactions and small molecules.
Clara Long is a fourth year student Bachelor of Health Science student and has been awarded a BHSc Honours Program Summer 2017 Research Scholarship. She’ll complete work on bacterial fermentation of specific dietary components in the infant gut in the lab of Dr. Jennifer Stearns.
Parsa Mehraban Far is a 3rd year Bachelor of Health Science student at McMaster. He has been awarded an NSERC Undergraduate Scholarship to work in Dr. Wali Khan‘s lab this summer on the interaction of serotonin with PPAR-gamma in antimicrobial peptide production.
Joo Yung (Jeff) Park is a fourth year student in the Bachelor of Health Sciences program. He has won a 2017 Ivan Beck Memorial Summer Studentship Award to study the gluten metabolic capacity of bacteria isolated from the duodenum of healthy subjects and patients with celiac disease, with Dr. Elena Verdu.
Bruno Lamas comes to the Verdu lab after a PhD from Auvergne University, France and a post-doctoral fellowship at UPMC University in Paris and MICALIS Institute at INRA. He is interested in the relationship between the products of metabolism and the host’s immune system, in the context of intestinal inflammatory disorders. Here at McMaster, supported by a Michael G. DeGroote Fellowship Award in Basic Biomedical Science, he will investigate the role of the gut microbiota metabolism on the inappropriate intestinal immune response observed in celiac disease patients. His long-term goal is to identify new mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, that can lead to development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies.
Approximately 300,000 Canadians suffer from celiac disease (CeD), one of the most common food sensitivities. CeD is triggered by ingestion of gluten-containing food, that causes destruction of the small intestinal lining leading to abdominal, skin and neurological symptoms. The HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 gene is necessary, but insufficient alone, to develop CeD suggesting additional environmental factors are required. Large, undigested fractions of gluten are responsible for the development of a pathogenic gluten-specific T cell response and this, in conjunction with the activation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), leads to intestinal atrophy. The trigger(s) for IEL activation in CeD, however, remain unknown. During his PhD Bruno showed that changes in gut bacteria lead to altered production of molecules that signal through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which affects inflammation in the gut. Importantly, AhR influences IELs that are key for the development of intestinal damage in CeD. Thus, the central aim of his proposed work is to determine if gut bacteria from celiac patients activate IELs through impaired capacity to produce AhR ligands from tryptophan metabolism. Currently, a strict life-long gluten-free diet is the only efficient treatment available for CeD. This is financially and socially difficult for patients, contamination with hidden sources of gluten is frequent, and many patients do not respond favorably to dietary gluten restriction. Bruno’s work will identify new mechanisms involved in the innate immune activation pathway of CeD in hopes of elaborating novel preventive and therapeutic strategies based on identification of AhR-activating bacteria, or their metabolites.
On April the 4th 2017, our Farncombe Institute was pleased to hand out awards to two students who presented their science project at the 57th annual Bay Area Science and Engineering Fair (BASEF), where almost 400 projects were on display. This year’s Farncombe judges were Jennifer Lau, Sharif Sharib and Jan Huizinga. We awarded Matthew Gilbreath, grade 7 at St Augustine, for his project: “Stomach Acid: The Mush Maker”, and Liam McGrath, grade 8 at Immaculate Conception, for his project: “Knock! Knock! Probiotics, are you really there?”. Both students were passionate about understanding our gut and what we can do to keep us healthy!
Ruihan Wei, a grade 11 student at Hillfield Strathallan College in Hamilton, has showed that he’s ready for the next wave of methodologies to reveal mechanisms underlying body functions and disease. Brain research is leading the way but research in network physiology is needed for every body function. Mathematical modelling is needed for the understanding of complex networks, which is where Ruihan has excelled. His paper on network properties of interstitial cells of Cajal is set to increase our understanding of the role of pacemaker networks in creating motor patterns in the intestine. Notably, after Sean Parsons and Jan got him going, Ruihan did all the experiments himself that created the publication in the journal Experimental Physiology, and the whole Huizinga lab is proud of his accomplishments and welcomes him back the coming summer.
See the publication summary here
Wei, Ruihan, Sean P. Parsons, and Jan D. Huizinga. “Network properties of interstitial cells of Cajal affect intestinal pacemaker activity and motor patterns, according to a mathematical model of weakly coupled oscillators.” Experimental Physiology (2017).