Endocrine Gut and Host Defense


The gut contains hundreds of thousands of endocrine cells which react to changes in gut contents by releasing hormones and variety of bioactive peptides. These hormones and peptides regulate intestinal motility and secretion and also modulate activity of mucosal immune cells. Enterochromaffin (EC) cells are best characterized endocrine cells in gut, and are the major source of serotonin which is also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT).  About 95% of the body’s serotonin is located in gut and serotonin is implicated in a number of intestinal diseases including functional disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and in a number of intestinal infections.  The physiological role of gut hormones/peptides such as 5-HT as well as their involvement in inflammatory and functional intestinal diseases, as well as in metabolism and obesity, is currently under investigation. In turn, the interaction between endocrine cells and their secretory products to the surrounding microbiota, immune system and nervous system in relation to gut inflammation and host defense has been demonstrated but under studied. Examining the relation between the gut endocrine system to these other effector systems will help to determine a more comprehensive understanding of gut responses to specific stimuli and how this may contribute to disease pathology, pathophysiology, and host defense.

People working on this area

Related Papers

  • Inhibiting peripheral serotonin synthesis reduces obesity and metabolic dysfunction by promoting brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. - 2015
    Crane Justin D, Palanivel Rengasamy, Mottillo Emilio P et al.
    Nat Med. Link: 25485911
  • Blocking peripheral serotonin synthesis by telotristat etiprate (LX1032/LX1606) reduces severity of both chemical- and infection-induced intestinal inflammation. - 2015
    Kim Janice J, Wang Huaqing, Terc Joshua D et al.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. Link: 26206858
  • Defective NOD2 peptidoglycan sensing promotes diet-induced inflammation, dysbiosis, and insulin resistance. - 2015
    Denou Emmanuel, Lolmède Karine, Garidou Lucile et al.
    EMBO Mol Med. Link: 25666722
  • 5-HT7 receptor signaling: improved therapeutic strategy in gut disorders. - 2015
    Kim Janice J, Khan Waliul I, et al.
    Front Behav Neurosci. Link: 25565996
  • Interleukin 13 and serotonin: linking the immune and endocrine systems in murine models of intestinal inflammation. - 2013
    Shajib Md Sharif, Wang Huaqing, Kim Janice J et al.
    PLoS One. Link: 24015275

  • Share on FacebookTweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+Share on LinkedIn